- Magnetic confinement schemes generally use a torus or donut. This is the design of the 500 MW ITER (once known as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), an $18 billion partnership of 35 nations (the USA contributes $200 million/year) to build such a facility at Cadarache, France for initial testing in 2027. This concept was selected because in 1997 the British Joint European Torus produced 16 MW from an input of 24 MW, 65% of the way to net positive. Nothing like some optimism, for the European Union already is planning for DEMO, a 2000 MW fusion facility to produce continuous power by 2040 for commercialization by 2050. From what I've seen, don't hold your breath for this particular system to make it.
- Inertial confinement, usually using a laser, as is being developed by LLNR National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Livermore, California. The cost is coasting to $5 billion, using 192 lasers to compress a BB-sized capsule of deuterium-tritium (the two isotopes of hydrogen):
There is another pathway: Heavy Ion Fusion. Read the details by the president of Fusion Power Corporation, Charles Helsley:
a few opportunities. Intriguing stories now and then pop up, like Italian Leonardo Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat). The concept appears to be losing support, and Forbes last week leaned in the clownerie direction. Read the Cold Fusion Times. This mechanism is now referred to as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions.