o Vasilios Lykousis of the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research reports that historically, waves as high as 20 meters (66 feet) have been caused by earthquakes, and that the Corinth Rift, separating the Peloponnese from Greece is the most active seismic zone in Europe.
o Yildiz Altinok of Istanbul University reports that 100 tsunamis affected Turkey in the past 3,000 years, and a destructive earthquake can be anticipated in the Marmara Sea.
o The most recent tsunami in Italy occurred in December 2002 from a Stromboli Volcano slope failure creating a 10 meter (33 feet) wave. The 79 A.D. Mt. Vesuvius earthquake/eruption which buried Pompeii caused a tsunami, as reported by Pliny the Younger. The biggest current worry is 9,900 Mt. Marsili (Europe’s biggest volcano), located between Campania and Sicily Sea.
o Fogo Volcano, on Cape Verde, an Atlantic archipelago, located off the coast of Senegal, Africa, has been feared by Simon Day of the University College London, to suffer flank instability, which, if a chunk slid into the sea, could create a mega tsunami.
o Similarly, Cumbre Vieja Volcano on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, also off West Africa, is a particular concern for Simon Day and Steven Ward of the University of California. A combination eruption and landslide with a speed of 350 kilometers per hour would have an energy release equal to 6 months of electricity consumption in the U.S. Tsunami waves of up to 650 meters (2132 feet) would be created with a wavelength of 40 km (25 miles), traveling to West Saharan shores at an amplitude of 100 meters (328 feet), and Florida at up to 50 meter waves, eight hours later. On October 12, 2000, BBC2 showed, “Mega-tsunami: Wave of Destruction,” about this potential disaster, which became a most controversial TV program. This program is updated with regularity and again was shown in June of 2006.
o California is a potential target from submarine landslides. A West Coast seeking tsunami created by Mauna Loa Volcano could run up to 18 meters (60 feet) according to Gary McMurtry of the University of Hawaii. Dr. McMurtry mentioned to me that he would speculate that the Nuuanu Landslide (I live on Nuuanu Avenue) should have created a much larger tsunami, but there is no physical evidence remaining.
o The Cascadia Subduction Zone, stretching from Vancouver Island to northern California, is suspected of being able to produce a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, which would almost surely produce something approaching a mega-tsunami. Yes, the reference is a novel, but this whole chapter started with a similar premise for Six Hours to Seattle, my future novel on this subject after The Venus Syndrome.
The price of crude dropped to $94/barrel. Gasoline prices, though, thanks to Ike, are surging. The Dow Jones Industrials sunk 504 to 10, 918, mostly due to the financial market crisis.